Large swaths of land on the fringe of metropolis are now undergoing transformation into a landscape of big boxes devoted to storage, logistics, or manufacture. On the other hand, close to specific cities, such as Paris or Moscow, strengthening support of the innovation economy has fueled the rise of research and development sites. Often simply labelled with the term “campus“, they emulate the archetype of an academic setting. Is the reference just a metaphor, or does it convey a specific spatial organization?
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